History of Sochi

1829 – Together with other territories the Black Sea Coast of Caucasus from Anapa to Sukhumi passed into Russia’s possession according to the Peace Treaty of Adrianople signing on September 14, 1829, after Russia’s victory in the Russo-Turkish War (1828-1829). In 1913, in honor of this event, the monument Anchor and Cannon was placed in Sochi on Primorsky Boulevard.

1829-1837 – Over these years, the territory of modern Greater Sochi nominally was in Russia possession, but the attempts to establish the relations with local population in peaceable ways did not get good results. In 1835 as an intelligence agent, the baron F. F. Tornau took a trip through these places. His way went across the modern districts of Greater Sochi such as Krasnaya Polyana, Kudepsta, Khosta, Matsesta and Central City District of Sochi, which was a residence of Aubla clan called Sochipsy. He described this travel in documentary literary work ‘The Russian Officer's Reminiscences’.

1837-1839 – The Black Sea coastal line consisting from a whole number of fortifications was set up according to the Caucasian military staff’s project. Four forts had been founded on the modern Greater Sochi’s territory:
Svyatogo Dukha Fort (resort settlement Adler in present) – on June 7, 1837, was landing operation by led of baron G. V. Rosen; on June 18, 1837, was fort’s foundation;
Alexandria Fort (Central City District of Sochi in present) – on April 13, 1838, was landing operation led by Rear Admiral F. G. Artukhov and Major General A. M. Simborsky; on April 21, 1838, was fort’s foundation; from May 18, 1839, the fort recall to Navaginsky;
Golovinsky Fort (resort settlement Golovinka in present) – on May 3, 1839, was landing operation led by Admiral M. P. Lazarev and General N. N. Raevsky; on May 12, 1839, was fort’s foundation;
Lazarevsky Fort (resort settlement Lazarevskoe in present) – on July 7, 1839, was landing operation led by Admiral M. P. Lazarev and General N. N. Raevsky.

1839-1854 – The life of the defenders of The Black Sea coastal line’s forts passed in constant readiness to fight and had battles with local population. However, their main enemy was malaria.

1854 – In the course of the Crimean War (1853-1856), Russian garrisons left the Black Sea coastal line’s forts.

1854-1864 – During these ten years the Black Sea Coast of Caucasus was the Russia’s territory only nominally.

1864 – This was the year when the Caucasian War (1785-1864) was over. A part of its finishing battles took place on the modern Greater Sochi’s territory with participation of Dakhovsky Regiment led by General V. A. Geyman. The decisive battle was on March 18, 1864, in the Godlik River’s valley (resort settlement Volkonskoe of Lazarevsky City District of Sochi at present). On March 25, 1864, almost without fight Dakhovsky Regiment captured the old Navaginsky fort (from April 1838 to May 1839 it bore the name Alexandria). On the place of old fortress was founded Dakhovsky station. After this Dakhovsky Regiment led by General V. A. Geyman moved along the Sochi River, then, through Ats Ravine and Akhtsu Ridge, it entered to settlement Kbaade (Krasnaya Polyana [red glade] in present) in the Mzymta River’s valley. The others several regiments reached the same place at this very time: General P. Kh. Grabbe’s Malo-Labinsky Regiment from the side of Main Caucasian Ridge; General P. N. Shatilov’s Psukhovsky Regiment across ridges Gagrinsky and Aibginsky; General D. I. Svyatopolk-Mirsky’s regiment from Aldler’s side through Mzymta River’s valley. In Kbaade, during the solemn ceremony on May 21, 1864, Viceroy of Caucasus Grand Duke Mikhail N. Romanov declared victory in Caucasian War. Defeated Ubykhs and Shapsugs took a last council headed by Khadzhi Kerantykh-Bey Berzek in Mutykhuasua Aul (village Plastunka in present) near the Fist Gateway under the White Poplar Sacred Tree. At this council, they decided to emigrate in Turkey.

1864-1866 – During these years the territory of nowadays Greater Sochi was entirely deserted.

1866 – Chernomorsky Okrug [Black Sea District] with administrative center in Novorossiysk City was formed included in Kubanskaya Guberniya [Kuban Province]. The territory of modern Greater Sochi began to settle down according to highest sanctioned by Russian Emperor ‘The Statute about Land Settlement of Chernomorsky Okrug’ is active from March 10, 1866.

1866-1877 – Land settlement’s process was going all over the Black Sea Coast of Caucasus. Viceroy of Caucasus Grand Duke Mikhail N. Romanov promoted with all his might the land settlement and development of new territory. He persuaded well-to-do men, who had possibility to invest considerable means in development of region, to buy large land ownerships on this territory. So, together with N. N. Mamontov and the others, brothers Vereshchagins bought a large land ownership to the south-east of Dakhovsky station, which for a long time was called Vereshchaginskaya side (micro-district Svetlana in present), and made a considerable contribution to region’s development. Viceroy of Caucasus Grand Duke Mikhail N. Romanov himself became the owner of a large land ownership, which stretched over territory of modern resort settlements Vardane and Loo. The imperial manor had been founded on the territory of the modern resort settlement Dagomys. However, the lands of new region developed only in agriculture ways in this period. Such development moved not with much luck because of climate and relief unaccustomed for Russian people. Nevertheless, the Black Sea Coast of Caucasus gradually was getting the new population. In these times was founded a whole number of new settlements such as Navaginskoe, Vesyoloe, Adler, Lazarevskoe, Akhshtyr, Aibga, Razdolnoe, Plastunka and the others. In 1827, an agency of ‘The Russian Company of Shipping and Trade’ opened in Dakhovsky station and began regular sea communication. In April 13, 1874, Dakhovsky station received a township’s status. In May 26, 1874, on Vereshchagins’ initiative the first Orthodox temple of Greater Sochi Archangel Michael Cathedral had been founded.

1877-1878 – In the course of Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878), some districts of modern Greater Sochi was touched with fights. On May 10, 1877, the Turkish troops landed in Adler. On May 21s, 1877, Dakhovsky township was bombed.

1878-1896 – The life of township Dakhovsky entered in peaceful way. Further land settlement and development continued. In addition the first prerequisites of the resorted development appeared. From 1878, a telegraph began to work. In 1883, businessman V. A. Khludov bought a large land ownership in suburb of township Dakhovsky on the Vinogradnaya Nill. This place for a long time called Khludovskaya side. On May 16, 1886, the academician G. V. Struve took the first test of water from Matsesta healing source. In summer of 1889 year, a famous Sankt-Petersburg’s publisher S. N. Khudekov bought a large land ownership in suburb of township Dakhovsky on the south slope of Lysaya Hill. In 1892 on his manor’s territory, he founded an arboretum park – the internationally famous Dendrariy. In February 1890, lighthouse of Sochi had been founded. On May 1, 1890, township Dakhovsky received status of municipal settlement with simplified governance. On October 25, 1890, the building of the first Greater Sochi’s Orthodox temple Archangel Michael Cathedral was over. On September 24, 1891, Archangel Michael Cathedral was consecrated. During 1891-1895 years, Novorossiysko-Sukhumskoe highway was constructing across the territory of modern Greater Sochi.

1896 – The Special Committee for Making Arrangements to Fastest Land Settlement of Seaboard was created by initiative of the Minister of Agriculture and State Properties A. S. Ermolov. The Member of State Council, steward of the household N. S. Abaza headed this Committee. Thanks for work of this Committee and for N. S. Avaza  and A. S. Ermolov themselves, the nowadays Greater Sochi’s development aimed to creating in this territory resorts of European level. On May 23, 1896, Chernomorsky Okrug was took of subordination to Kubanskaya Guberniya and became an independent Chrenomorskaya Guberniya with administrative center in Novorossiysk City. On the same date, the historical name Sochi was returned to Dakhovsky township, which was officially assign on October 6, 1896.

1896-1909 – Thanks for the Special Committee for Making Arrangements to Fastest Land Settlement of Seaboard began the study of natural medicinal factors for foundation resorts. With that aim, in 1898 the Committee for Studying the Black Sea Coast of Caucasus began to work. This Committee made an inference about a possibility of creating on this territory resorts. In 1897-1899, Krasnopolyanskoe highway had constructing under the direction of engineer V. K. Konstantinov. On January 19, 1899, settlement Khosta got status of town. On June 19, 1899, settlement Romanovsk (Krasnaya Polyana [red glade] at present) got status of town. In 1902, a physiotherapist doctor V. F. Podgursky attracted A. S. Ermolov’s attention to medicinal possibility of Matsesta healing sources. In 1903 French scientist Edouard-Alfred Martel, been in scientific trip over the Black Sea Coast of Caucasus on A. S. Ermolov’s official invitation, had studying Matsesta healing sources. The Special Committee for Making Arrangements to Fastest Land Settlement of Seaboard during these years began to buy out large land ownerships, which did not use properly, and then divided its into parts and sold separately, much of them with condition to found hotels and spa-complexes. Said Committee organized wide-ranging PR-actions to popularize virtues of this territory with aim to attract investment in resort sector. A whole range of private cottages, hotels, spa-complexes and sanatoria were building and parks were laying out in these times.

1909 – On June 14, 1909, there was a ceremony of opening the first in the region of modern Greater Sochi luxurious spa-hotel Kavkazskaya Riviera [Caucasian Riviera]. Now, this day is considering as a foundation of Sochi as a resort-city and became a town’s holiday Day of the Resort. A founder of Kavkazskaya Rivera A. V. Tarnopolsky for realization his project at the suggestion of A. S. Ermolov bought seaside part of V. A. Khludov’s land ownership. Kavkazskaya Rivera was the first place in Sochi, which was equipped with electricity, water supply system and sewerage system. The only shortcoming, according to opinion of contemporaries, was remoteness from township Sochi. It is incredible for modern times, because now this place consider as a very center of Sochi, but then Khludovskaya side (the Sochi River’s right bank of outfall part) was a suburb.

1909-1917 – Sochi continued to develop like a resort. On August 14, 1910, businessman M. M. Zenzinov and physiotherapist doctor V. F. Podgursky leased Matsesta source. On September 28, 1911, memorandum of Matsesta hydrogen-sulphidous sources association had sanctioned. The Matsesta hydrogen-sulphidous sources association was set up for opening spa with modern equipment as soon as possible. From July 25, 1912, Matsesta spa began to work. On May 28, 1911, there was passing a low ‘About Levy a Season Tax from Arrivals to Township Sochi’. This document brought Sochi an official status as a resort territory. In these times, a great attention had paid to develop utility and communication lines: there were beginning of electrification in 1913 and the building of the Black Sea Railway on summer 1914. Engineer V. K. Konstantinov directed construction of its Sochi’s part. Cultural life grew at this period. In May 27, 1912 a ceremony of opening Pushkin Library, that had built, according to project of town architect A. Ya. Butkin. Society’s Assembly, Folk House and Pushkin Library became centers of social and cultural activities. On April 1913, Sochi township’s population placed a monument ‘Anchor and Cannon’ and laid out Platanovaya [plane tree] Alley in honor to 300 anniversary of Romanov’s House governing and 75 anniversary of foundation Alexandria Fort. In 1914, Church of the Transfiguration had built in Khosta town on initiative of M. F. Shcheglovitova (Minister of Justice I. G. Shcheglovitov’s wife), who was headed the Assembly of Town Beautification together with General Muravyov.

1917 – On July 31, 1917, township Sochi received status of town owing to attaching Khludovskaya and Vereshchaginskaya sides.

1917-1920 – Events of the October revolution and the Civil War, that flooded all Russia, did not give Sochi a wide berth.

1920-1941 – Sochi continued to develop, but as a socialist resort. Private hotels, manors and cottages were nationalized over 20-th years. Sanatoria and rest homes were founded on their places. In addition, with particular activity, new sanatoria, rest homes and other objects were built over these years such as: the Frunze Sanatorium (1922), the Salyut Sanatorium (1926), the Belarus Sanatorium (1928), the Fabritsius Sanatorium (1929), the Chemitoquadge Sanatorium (1934),The Central Military Sanatorium (1934), the road on the Akhun Mountain (1935) and the review tower on its top (1936), the Primorye Sanatorium (1935), Mys Vidniy Sanatorium (1935), the Ordjonikidze Sanatorium (1936), Zimny Theatre (1937), the Kirova Sanatorium (1937), Letny Theatre of Frunze Park (1938).

1941-1945 – During the Great Patriotic War Sochi transformed to a hospital’s town. More then 500 thousands soviet soldiers and officers regain their health here. The last wounded man was discharged from Sochi’s hospitals only in 1947. In addition, from 1942 Katyusha rocket launchers for the fighting at the mountain territory were produced in Sochi.

1945-1961 – The pre-war capacity of Sochi as a resort was regained by 1950. During these years a range of new sanatoria and other objects were built such as: Sochi Railway Station (1952), Stereo Movie Theatre (1953), the Dzerzhinskogo Sanatorium (1854), Sochi Sea Port Terminal (1955), the Metallurg Sanatorium (1956), the Zapolyarye Sanatorium (1956), the Rossiya Sanatorium (1957), Sochi’s TV Center (1958), the Sputnik Youth Tourist Center (1960)

1961 – February 10 1961 is a birthday of Greater Sochi, which from this day consists of four city districts – Lazarevsky, Central, Khostinsky and Alersky – and stretches between rivers Magri and Psou on 105 km over the coastal line and on 135 km over the Main Caucasian Ridge.

1961-1986 – In these years Sochi became the all-USSR resort. On March 15, 1967, Sochi got a coat of arms creating by artists E. V. Travinova and M. A. Vorotyntsev. New sanatoria and hotels continued to build and already existing re-equipped. In addition, more attention was paying to comfortable life of town population. New living micro-districts with well-developed infrastructure had appeared. From beginning of space exploration, Sochi became a base of rest and health regain for cosmonauts. In this period the Sochi’s importance as a center of international friendship had grow. Premises to this way has been laid far earlier, but precisely in this time the spontaneously appeared traditions – engrafting on Derevo Druzhby [Friendship’s Tree] by statesmen, public figures, politicians, scientists, cultural workers; planting trees in friendship’s alleys in Sochi’s parks and others – took an official status. A range of sister cities grew rapidly. Especially for rest and regain health to foreign tourists, new hotels and sanatoria’s dwelling houses were built. All the resort organizations worked with entire capacity. In summer season, the quantity of tourists was ten times more then local population.

1986-1991 – The years of Perestroika period became a popularity peak for Sochi. The quantity of tourists in summer was so large that even sea became unable to natural refinement its waters. In 1989, Sochi for the first time has made an application to hold Winter Olympic Games. It was a question about Games of 2002 year.

1991-1998 – This period in Sochi’s history was rather difficult. The stream of tourists had sharply lowered, because of economic and political instability in whole Russia and war in Abkhazia, and has turned in direction of foreign resorts. Even in summer, sanatoria and hotels did not work with entire capacity and most of them had to close in low season. However, precisely in this period, Sochi began to develop like a center of festivals, exhibitions, congresses, forums, seminars and the others cultural, economic and political events, from all-Russian to the international levels.

1998-2009 – Default of 1998 had played a positive part in Sochi’s life. In summer 1999, quantity of tourists had increased. During the following years not so fast as in 1999, but steadily, Sochi had returned past popularity to itself. In low season, however, yet much of sanatoria and hotels on seacoast did not work in entire capacity, but it was compensated by ski resort Krasnaya Polyana’s [red glade] development, which became brisk from the moment when in 1989 Sochi started to fight for right to hold Winter Olympic Games. Sochi struggled for the right to be the Olympic capital three times: at first for Games 2002, then for Games 2006 and at last for Games 2014. Finally, on the night of July 5, 2007, Sochi was declared by the capital of 22nd Winter Olympic Games.